Little spotted kiwi/kiwi pukupuku (Apteryx owenii) is the smallest kiwi species and is about the size of a bantam hen. Their plumage is pale mottled grey and shaggy.

Little Spotted kiwi

Population status

All population numbers quoted are based on 2015 estimates unless otherwise stated. An updated population estimate will be provided in 2022, based on expansion of predator control operations and increased knowledge on the outcomes of various pest control regimes

The total number of little spotted kiwi is thought to be just over 1500 and growing.

Because they live only on a few offshore islands (most are on Kapiti Island) and in Zealandia in the heart of Wellington city, little spotted kiwi are classified by the Department of Conservation as ‘at risk: recovering’.

A distinct form of little spotted kiwi used to live throughout the North Island, but became extinct in the late 1800s.

In the South Island, little spotted kiwi were widespread in the west and north during the early 1900s but died out around 1980. That year, the population had dropped to just 1000 birds, devastated on the mainland by stoats, cats, and larger predators. Without the sanctuary of offshore islands, little spotted kiwi may have gone extinct.

The table below shows the estimated little spotted kiwi population in 2008, and what it could be in 10 years time, assuming that the Kapiti Island population is stable and other recently established and projected populations increase by about 7% each year.

Region
Kapiti Island
Kohanga (all but Kapiti)
Estimated 2008 population
1,200+
315
Estimated 2015 population
1,200
600
Projected 2030 population
1,200+
1,667

Family dynamics

Breeding pairs

As with other kiwi species, little spotted kiwi pairs are monogamous, with only one mate at a time.

Little spotted kiwi also generally mate for life. Like brown kiwi, divorces do sometimes happen, usually because of failed breeding attempts or if the birds are early in their breeding career.

The pairs are strongly territorial and stay in their patch all year round.

Eggs & clutches

Little spotted kiwi usually lay one egg in a clutch, and usually just one clutch a season. Sometimes breeding pairs will lay a second clutch if the first egg fails.

Incubation

Only the male little spotted kiwi incubates the egg.

Chicks

Little spotted kiwi chicks are never fed by their parents. They first leave the burrow to feed when they’re 5–7 days old; up until then they are nourished by their large yolk sac, leftover from when they were in the egg. Only the male parent stays near the young chick which returns to its nest to sleep for between 20 and 60 days after hatching. At night, while the chick is out feeding, the female does stay nearby to offer protection, but she never returns to the nest.

Operation Nest Egg

Operation Nest Egg is not used with little spotted kiwi. The tool is not considered necessary as the species population is not declining. In fact, the number of little spotted kiwi is increasing as they are moved off Kapiti Island to more sites. Also, because all little spotted kiwi populations live in places where there are no predators, Operation Nest Egg is not the most cost-effective way to increase the population.

Kōhanga kiwi

No formal kōhanga kiwi populations exist for little spotted kiwi, although birds are regularly moved off Kapiti Island which is at, or close to, its carrying capacity.

Preferred habitat

On Kapiti Island, little spotted kiwi occupy all vegetation types including flax, mixed scrub, seral and older forest, and rough grassland. Lower numbers in scrub and grassland areas suggest these are the places they like the least.

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